(18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013)
was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary,
politician, and philanthropist, who served as
President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
He was the country's first black chief executive,
and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election.
His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid
through tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial
Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist,
he served as President of the
African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.
Internationally, Mandela was
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999.
| Mandela attended Fort Hare
University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied
law. Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial
politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its
Youth League. After the Afrikaner minority government of the
National Party established apartheid – a system of racial
segregation that privileged whites – in 1948, he rose to prominence
in the ANC's 1952 anti-apartheid Defiance Campaign, was appointed
superintendent of the organisation's Transvaal chapter and presided
over the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was
repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC
leadership, was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the Treason Trial from
1956 to 1961. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the South
African Communist Party (SACP). Although initially committed to
non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the
militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, leading a sabotage campaign
against the government. In 1962, he was arrested, convicted of
conspiracy to overthrow the state, and sentenced to life
imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. -WikiPedia