(November 9, 1934 –
December 20, 1996)
was an American astronomer, cosmologist,
astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and
science communicator in
astronomy and other natural sciences.
contributions were central to the discovery of the high surface
temperatures of Venus.
However, he is best known for his
to the scientific research of
including experimental demonstration of the production
of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation.